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Amerasinghe Chittharanjan Felix. Local Remedies in International Law — Cambridge University Press. Download
КНИГИ З ПРАВА | | СКАЧАТЬ КНИГУ 13.04.2018, 06:51
This work examines the local remedies rule historically and particularly in modern international law. Not only is the customary international law discussed but the application, inter alia, of the rule conventionally to human rights protection and generally to international organizations is also covered. It is as comprehensive a treatment on the subject as can be. The law is dealt with in the light of State practice and the jurisprudence of international courts and tribunals
Додав: egege | Контактна особа: правознавець | Теги: Международное публичное право, Nature of the rule, Incidence of the rule, Local Remedies, Cambridge University, International Law, Basis of the rule
Переглядів: 51 | Розміщено до: 13.05.2019 | Рейтинг: 0.0/0
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Preface page xiii Table of cases xv List of abbreviations xxix
Part I Prolegomena
1 Introduction 3 The subject 3 Scheme and method 13
2 The evolution of the law relating to local remedies 22
3 Basis of the rule 43 The basis of diplomatic protection 43 The interests of the state of nationality 48 The interests of the defendant state, competing national states and entities other than the injured alien 49 The interests and position of the injured alien 52 Choices among competing interests and essentials 53 The interests behind the rule of local remedies 56 The interest of the host or respondent state 59 The interest of the alien 61 The interest of the alien’s national state 61 The interest of the international community 61 Choices among competing interests 62 The rule in human rights protection 64 The context of human rights protection 68 The basis of the local remedies rule in human rights protection 71 The formulation of the rule in human rights instruments 74
4 The rule, denial of justice and violation of international law 84 Meaning of the concept 84 Incidence and relevance of the original injury 92 Need to exhaust remedies 97 International responsibility and violation of international law 102 Conclusion: some basic principles 104
5 Contracts, violation of international law, denial of justice and the rule 107 The earlier authorities 108 State practice 108 International treaty practice 110 International decisions 114 Text writers 120 Functional considerations 124 The business context 124 The international legal system 125 The delictual analogy 125 Deductions 126 Exceptional circumstances giving rise to a violation of international law 126 Later developments 127 Choice of law 128 Choice of jurisdictional forum 131 The relationship between jurisdiction and the choice of the proper law of the contract 135 Transnational law and breach of contract 136 Conclusion 137 The effect of referring alien--state contract claims to an international jurisdiction 139

Part II Application of the rule
6 Incidence of the rule 145 The direct injury 146 The existence of the ‘direct injury’ exclusion 146 The definition of ‘direct injury’ 151
Jurisdictional connection 168 The authorities 169 The criterion of the location of the wrong 173
7 Scope of the rule 179 The requirement of availability of remedies 181 Ordinary and extraordinary remedies: the requirement of legal nature 182 The rationale for the applicable principle in regard to the nature of remedies 188 The requirement of adequate and effective remedies 189 The concept of normal use 192 The raising of substantive issues 195 Persons obligated to observe the rule 197 The need for a final decision 198
8 Limitations on the rule 200 The unavailability and inaccessibility of remedies 203 The ineffectiveness of remedies 204 Undue delay 210 Repetition of injury or likelihood of further damage 212 Other possible exceptional circumstances 213 Circumstances not limiting the operation of the rule 214
9 The rule as applied to the use of procedural resources 216 Procedures that are obligatory under the local law 219 Procedures that are not obligatory but discretionary under the local law 223 Verification of the effectiveness of the remedy 233 The time in respect of which the two principles must be applied 238 Obstruction by the respondent state 240 General conclusions 245
10 Waiver of the rule and estoppel 247 Express waiver 247 Implied waiver 250 The optional clause 252 Submission by states to international adjudication or arbitration 252 The issue of arbitrability 255
Non-inter-state arbitration agreements between states and privateparties256 Failure to raise preliminary objection 265 Request for a declaratory judgment 265 Conciliation proceedings 267 Waiver and investment treaties 267 The principles of estoppel and good faith 276
11 Burden of proof 280 General principles in customary international law 280 Burden of proof in regard to the exhaustion of local remedies 285
12 Procedural matters connected with the rule 293 The time for raising the objection based on the rule 293 The time of decision on the objection based on the rule 295 Joinder to the merits 296 The time at which remedies must be exhausted 298
Part III Peripheral and analogous applications of the rule
13 The rule and human rights protection 303 The direct injury 305 Jurisdictional connection 310 Scope of the rule 312 Availability and accessibility 312 Ordinary and extraordinary remedies 313 Effectiveness and adequacy 316 Normal use 318 Raising of substantive issues 319 Need for a final decision 322 Limitations on the rule 325 Unavailability or inaccessibility of remedies 325 Inefficacy 335 Undue delay 339 Repetition of injury or likelihood of further damage 341 Limitations applied in human rights protection 341 The prevailing condition 341 Legislative measures and administrative practices 342 The continuing situation 344 Some non-limiting circumstances 345
Use of procedural resources 346 Waiver 347 Express waiver 347 Implied waiver 348 Estoppel and good faith 349 The burden of proof 350 The European Convention on Human Rights 351 The American Convention on Human Rights 354 The Human Rights Committee 355 Matters connected with procedure 356 The time at which remedies must be exhausted 356 The time for raising the objection 357 The time of decision on the objection 358 Joinder to the merits 359 The six-months rule 362
14 The rule and international organizations 366 Claims by international organizations against states 367 Claims against international organizations 371 Claims by staff members against international organizations 375
Part IV Nature of the rule
15 Nature of the rule 385 The prevailing views in theory 387 Theories explanatory of the rule 392 Possible practical consequences of the different views of the nature of the rule 396 The cause of action 396 The time of incidence of international responsibility 397 The manner in which the issue is treated internationally 398 Waiver and estoppel 400 Judicial and state practice 402 Support for the substantive view 403 Direct support for the procedural view 404 The action taken by courts and judges 407 Deductions 416 The view of the rule in human rights protection 417 Concluding observations 419
16 A concluding appraisal 425 Balancing of interests 425 The rule in human rights protection and its impact 430 Relevance of theory 436 Undue ‘strictnesss’ as a problem 436 Analogous applications 437

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