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Zander Michael QC. The Law-Making Process. Sixth Edition. — Cambridge University Press, 2004. — 555 p.
КНИГИ З ПРАВА | | СКАЧАТЬ КНИГУ 04.02.2018, 22:48
As a critical analysis of the law-making process, this book has no equal. For more than two decades it has filled a gap in the requirements of law students and others taking introductory courses on the legal system. It deals with every aspect of the law-making process: the preparation of legislation; its passage through Parliament; statutory interpretation; binding precedent; how precedent works; law reporting; the nature of the judicial role; European Union law; and the process of law reform
Додав: egege | Контактна особа: правознавець | Теги: Законодавство, законодавча діяльність
Переглядів: 15 | Розміщено до: 04.12.2019 | Рейтинг: 0.0/0
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Contents
Preface to the sixth edition page xiii
Preface to the first edition xiv
Acknowledgments xv
Books, pamphlets, memoranda and articles excerpted xvii
Table of cases xx
1 Legislation – the Whitehall stage 1
1. The preparation of legislation 1
(a) The sources of legislation 2
(b) The role of the civil servants – the bill team 7
© The consultative process 8
(d) Green andWhite Papers 9
(e) Cabinet control 10
2. Drafting legislation 14
(a) The Office of Parliamentary Counsel 14
(b) The process of drafting 18
3. Criticism of the quality of drafting 25
4. Proposals for improving the quality of the statute book 37
5. Response to the criticisms and proposals 39
2 Legislation – the Westminster stage 53
1. The legislative process 53
(a) Procedure for public bills 53
(b) Royal Assent 57
© Private bill procedure 57
(d) Hybrid bills 60
(e) Private Members’ bills 60
(f) Consolidation and statute law revision or repeal 64
2. Legislative committees 68
(a) First Reading Committees 68
viiviii Contents
(b) Second Reading Committees (House of
Commons) 68
© Special Standing Committees (both Houses) 69
(d) Grand Committees (both Houses) 70
(e) Select Committee on Bills 70
(f) The role of Departmental Select Committees
in legislation 71
3. The role of the bill team 73
4. Interaction between interested parties during the
legislative process 75
5. The time taken by parliamentary debates 78
6. The impact on bills of the parliamentary process 79
(a) How often does the Opposition oppose a bill? 81
(b) Who moves and what happens to amendments? 81
7. The composition of the House of Lords 84
8. Pre-legislative scrutiny under human rights legislation 88
9. Publication of bills in draft form 89
10. Carrying over legislation from one session to another 91
11. Curtailing debate 93
Programme motions 94
12. Legislation in haste 98
13. When does a statute come into force? 99
14. Statutes on computerised database 103
15. The reach of legislation and devolution 104
(a) Scotland 104
(b) Wales 106
© Northern Ireland 107
16. Delegated legislation 108
17. Scrutiny of delegated legislation 111
(a) Parliamentary committees 111
(b) Deregulation and regulatory reform orders 113
© Remedial orders under the Human Rights Act 1998 116
(d) Legislation for Northern Ireland 117
(e) The Lords ‘merits’ select committee 119
18. Delegated legislation – Anglo-American comparison 120
19. Summary of defects in statutes 124
20. Howtodoitproperly 126
3 Statutory interpretation 127
1. Interpretation is a necessary aspect of communication 127
2. The three basic so-called ‘rules’ of statutory interpretation 130
(a) The literal rule 130Contents ix
(b) The golden rule 130
© The mischief rule 131
3. The three basic rules considered 132
(a) The dominant rule was the literal rule 132
(b) What of the golden rule? 147
© Is the mischief rule any better? 149
4. Understanding the context – statutes and judicial
decisions 149
(a) The court can read the whole statute 149
(b) The court can read earlier statutes 152
5. Understanding the context – evidence beyond statutes
and judicial decisions 157
(a) International conventions or treaties as a source 157
(b) General historical background 158
© Government publications 159
(d) Parliamentary debates 161
(e) Pepper v. Hart 164
(f) The significance of Pepper v. Hart 170
(g) Explanatory Notes 179
6. Presumptions and subordinate principles of interpretation
as an aid to construction 182
7. Are the rules, principles, presumptions and other guides to
interpretation binding on the courts? 183
8. The Human Rights Act 1998 – a new rule of statutory
interpretation 184
9. What (if any) is the function of general statutory rules on
statutory interpretation? 189
10. Do statements of general principle assist? 191

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11. What is the court’s proper function in interpreting a
statute? 193
(a) To seek out the intention or purpose of
Parliament? 193
(b) To give effect to what Parliament said, rather than
what it meant to say? 196
© Should interpretation reflect changing times? 198
(d) Has membership of the European Community
changed the principles of statutory interpretation? 207
(e) Is statutory interpretation a form of legislation? 211
4 Binding precedent – the doctrine of stare decisis 215
1. The hierarchy of courts and the doctrine of binding
precedent 216
(a) The House of Lords 216x Contents
(b) The Court of Appeal, Civil Division 225
© The Court of Appeal, Criminal Division 245
(d) Divisional Courts 249
(e) Trial courts 251
(f) Precedents that are not binding 254
(g) The effect of the Human Rights Act 1998 on precedent 255
(h) The effect of the Civil Procedure Rules on prior
precedents 256
2. A comparison with some other countries and with the
European Court of Justice 256
The European Court of Justice 262
3. Devolution issues 263
5 How precedent works 265
1. Professional techniques for using precedents 268
(a) Ratio, dictum or obiter dictum 268
(b) Is the precedent distinguishable? 275
© What weight should be given to the precedent? 278
(d) Inconvenience and injustice 280
2. Preparation and delivery of judgments 284
(a) Judgments in the House of Lords 284
(b) Oral (extempore) and written (reserved)
judgments 288
© The trend toward composite judgments in the Court
of Appeal, Civil Division 291
(d) The form of judgments 294
3. Are precedents law or only evidence of the law? 298
4. The values promoted by the system of precedent 302
5. Flexibility and stability in the common law system 303
6 Law reporting 306
1. The history of law reporting 306
2. Criticisms of the system 310
3. The advent of Lexis 318
4. Free access to law reports online 318
5. The problem of the mass of unreported decisions 319
6. The hierarchy of law reports 326
7. The form of law reports 327
Neutral citation 327
7 The nature of the judicial role in law-making 330
1. The personal element in judicial law-making 330
2. The background of judges 338Contents xi
3. The appointment of judges 339
(a) The Lord Chancellor to be replaced by a Judicial
Appointments Commission 339
(b) Diversity on the bench 349
© The Constitutional Reform Bill 353
4. Do the judges have biases? 354
5. Should the judges be activist? 360
6. Can judges undertake their own researches into the law? 388
7. What the law is and what it ought to be 389
8. The practical effect of the retrospective impact of
common law decisions 393
9. Prospective overruling as an aid to creative law-making 397
10. The trend toward written argument 403
The quality of oral argument in the English courts 414
11. Legal argument by non-parties 415
12. Interaction between the judge and the advocate 421
8 Other sources of law 423
1. European Union Law 423
(a) The institutions of the Community 426
(b) Community law and the United Kingdom system 433
© Parliamentary scrutiny of European legislation 440
2. Scholarly writings 442
3. Custom 448
4. Quasi-legislation, codes of practice, circulars, etc. 455
9 The process of law reform 459
1. Historical 459
2. The Law Commissions 461
(a) TheWhite Paper 461
(b) The Law Commission Act 1965 464
© The Commission’s method of working 466
(d) General reputation 469
(e) The Law Commission and consultation 470
3. The Law Commission and some problems of law reform 474
(a) The Law Commission as an adviser to
government 474
(b) Law Commission confined to lawyers’ or
technical law reform 475
© Judicial law-making in the light of the existence of the
Law Commission 477
4. Implementation of law-reform proposals 480
5. The Law Commission and the codification project 484xii Contents
6. Can more be done to involve the community in the process
of law reform? The Australian experience 507
(a) Consultative documents 508
(b) Public hearings 508
© Use of the media 510
(d) Surveys and questionnaires 510
(e) Conclusion

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